Worried About Climate Change… How ’bout an 80 Year Winter?

Would a winter lasting 80 years be enough to appease “Global Warming Alarmists”

That’s how long two volcanic winters may have lasted after two separate explosions of the Yellowstone volcano about 630,000 years ago, the same eruptions that formed the Yellowstone caldera, and the last big eruptions of the volcano. The explosions occurred about 170 years apart and helped drop the ocean surface temperature by about 5.4 degrees.

These conclusions are the result of a detailed examination of sediments collected in Santa Barbara Basin, off the Southern California coast. By drilling into the basin’s mud, scientists from the University of California Santa Barbara could see the individual layers on an almost decade by decade basis, an amazingly detailed view.

Their research was revealed in a press release from the Geological Society of America last week.

Grabbing headlines
Mention Yellowstone and volcano in the same sentence and news feeds hum, Facebook lights up with frightening posts and some websites hype a foreboding end to life on Earth. Especially in the past few months, Yellowstone’s supervolcano has garnered several such headlines.

First came a swarm of earthquakes, mostly small, that spawned theories of an impending eruption. Earthquake swarms are common in the area, hitting as many as 3,000 in 1985. The cause is either changing stresses in the vicinity of the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake, or it could be water or magma moving around under the surface, according to Mike Poland, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey and the scientist in charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

Last summer’s log of earthquakes was high at 2,500, but Poland pointed out that the seismic infrastructure monitoring the Greater Yellowstone Area is also much more sensitive and yet may still be missing some smaller, more localized temblors.

Another story that grabbed attention said that NASA scientists had studied how to inject cool water into Yellowstone’s magma chamber to depressurize the system and halt an eruption, according to the BBC. The system could use venting steam to power turbines, a double benefit.

Quicker refill
Other recent headline-capturing stories have been based on a scientific study that, taken out of context, was used by some websites to create doomsday scenarios.

Arizona State University graduate student Hannah Shamloo, who analyzed fossilized volcanic ash from Yellowstone, reported that an injection of fresh magma into a system like Yellowstone’s — enough to cause a supereruption — could happen in decades rather than thousands of years.

“It’s shocking how little time is required to take a volcanic system from being quiet and sitting there to the edge of an eruption,” Shamloo told The New York Times.

That statement was qualified, though, with the footnote that there’s more work to do before scientists can verify a precise time scale.

Poland happened to be in the Yellowstone backcountry when that story appeared, requiring his predecessor to field calls on the subject from the national and international media. Although Poland has worked in Hawaii where volcanic eruptions can generate a lot of local interest, he said he was surprised by the “intense media focus” related to Yellowstone.

“There’s a psychology to this I didn’t expect,” he said, “which has me wanting to get more information out to the public, because it seems like the public really eats it up.”

Geyser gazers
An example of the continuing public interest Yellowstone’s plumbing can generate also came in October when University of Utah scientists published a report providing a better picture of the underground workings of Old Faithful geyser and the surrounding geyser basin. By using seismic sensors to capture faint vibrations, the researchers were able to map the hot water reservoir that supplies water to the geyser.

“The neat thing about these geyser systems is they are repeat experiences,” Poland said. “Assuming the plumbing doesn’t change, they can deploy in one area, move to another and see the same process to map out the plumbing system.”

The scientists estimated that the underground hot water reservoir — which is really a system of cracks and fractures rather than one large pool — has a diameter of about 200 meters, “a little larger than the University of Utah’s Rice-Eccles Stadium, and can hold approximately 300,000 cubic meters of water, or more than 79 million gallons,” according to a university press release.

By comparison, each eruption of Old Faithful releases around 8,000 gallons, leaving a lot in reserve.

“Although it’s a rough estimation, we were surprised that it was so large,” said doctoral student Sin-Mei Wu, the first author of the research.

Old Faithful got its name because it regularly erupts about every 44 to 125 minutes.

 

Back to mud

Old Faithful’s eruptions are like seconds on the geological time scale when compared to the data analyzed in the mud of the Santa Barbara Basin. Poland said although the findings are intriguing, he’s going to hold off on endorsing the evidence until it can be reconciled with other information found around Yellowstone.

“I don’t know much about the offshore geology,” he said. “But even if it is only a couple of hundred years, I think you would see it in the stratigraphy that was mapped in Yellowstone. It could be completely consistent.”

U.C. Santa Barbara geologist Jim Kennett, who led the study, said the evidence was so apparent because of the basin’s unique formation. About 1 millimeter a year of sediment is deposited into the basin, which is fed nutrients from the ocean that include tiny shellfish. The shells preserved in the sediment are a record of oxygen isotopes from which scientists can deduce the sea surface temperature when they were alive.

Oxygen levels on the bottom of the basin are so low that no mud-dwelling marine animals live there, animals that could burrow into the mud and mix up the sediment layers.

“Thus, it is not surprising that Kennett and his group can look in detail at the climate changes following a volcanic eruption,” Cathy Whitlock, a Montana State University professor whose Paleoecology Lab has used sediment cores from mountain lakes to track fire and climate history in the West, wrote in an email.

“Their study gives us insight into a period that is generally poorly known,” she added. “It was a time of tremendous change in our region, with the eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano, which was likely a series of closely spaced eruptions.”

So cold

Each volcanic winter lasted longer than it should have, according to simple climate models, Kennett said in the news release.

“We see planetary cooling of sufficient magnitude and duration that there had to be other feedbacks involved.” The feedbacks might have included increased sunlight-reflecting sea ice and snow cover or a change in ocean circulation that would cool the planet for a longer time.

Such findings didn’t surprise Whitlock.

“We saw cooler temperatures around the world as a result of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the early ’90s,” she wrote. “This was due to the ejection of particulates and sulfides in the atmosphere. It sounds like this group is seeing a similar but greater cooling impact from the Yellowstone eruptions, which would have been many times larger.”

If the research holds up, Poland said volcanologists will have to adjust their models.

The ability to examine an event so long ago based on layers of sediment in a basin in California is fascinating to Poland and just one more example of how continuing technological evolution is painting a broader picture of ancient events, and giving greater insight into the functioning of the Yellowstone caldera and its unique geology, tales of which are always good for a headline.

Climate Change Cure? How ‘Bout an 80 Year Winter?

Now Who’s in Charge Here?

This was sent as a reply to Rep. Henry, after we talked on the phone today, on a radio talk show; I didn’t get to finish what I was saying about Jeff Sessions; there are a few things that are extremely important. You express great confidence and Jeff Sessions, but if you look at what’s happening I think your confidence is misplaced.
Here is why, Rosenstein justified under penalty of perjury before Congress that the dossier was the source and basis, it is a portrait of perjury, yet when he testified he did not know that the disclosure of his intricate involvement in issuing the FISA warrant that was based on perjury would be made public or even available to Donald Trump; and that too is accurate, true?
However, he was not just involved in its original issuance, but he was also involved in a subsequently continued authorization. This is not your normal title III eavesdropping warrant, I would assume you agree with that? What that means is that to continue a FISA warrant to have to be a series of events occur; first, you have to certify that an American citizen is, in fact, an agent of the foreign government, secondly to continue the FISA warrant you have to show significant progress for its continuation or lie about it.
If not they would have to go to a regular federal district court, which would have been discovered, under 18 U.S. Code § 2518 – Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, in this case, Ron Rosenstein signed off on the 3 additional extensions of that perjured warrant. So would you agree?
So let’s look at the deep state. You have James Comey, that covered for Hillary, then put in for a job FBI director, for Donald Trump. Unbeknownst to even many Democrats; Comey as Peter, Lisa Page, McCabe, Rosenstein, and yes Mueller they are devout Deep State allies of Hillary Clinton and their cause which is why he ‘reopened’ the ‘investigation’ involving Huma to kill it, just before the election.
FYI, Anthony Weiner’s for his communications usually used Facebook messenger not regular emails on his computer. It is important to understand that Huma was an unregistered agent for the reigning government and the Saudis, their connection/ or cohesion was with the Muslim Brotherhood, and those stored emails were to be used for blackmail on Hillary Clinton when she became ‘president’
Remember, James Comey had already exonerated Hillary once but was forced and had to, pretend to reopen Hillary’s investigation, the people/ FBI special agents that went into Anthony Weiner’s computer, discovered 625,000 emails most of them generated by Clinton operatives many from the State Department and the Clinton of all foundation/information, generated by Huma and Hillary, and among those were the allegedly destroyed 33,000 missing emails, those included passwords and identity of assets in the Middle East for the CIA, some were caught and killed because they been compromised by that breach of 18 USC 793, an act they tried to blame Edward Snowden for, his was the vault 7 intel the CIA leaked to Julian Assange, involving domestic spying on US citizens. Snowden did not have access that information, but they attempted to blame him as a cover for Hillary Clinton’s growing list of illegal acts {now spanning over four decades}.
Consequently, if a damage assessment was done, both Huma and Hillary would be looking at life imprisonment at a minimum!
Even Democrats, are suspicious of the all too often “song sung” by the deep state” from IRS to Hillary, “THE EMAILS had been “destroyed” “gone missing”, just like judicial watches request for meeting between Bill Clinton and then attorney general Loretta Lynch meeting on the tarmac BS spin talking points. Many want answers as to how two agentsPeter Strzok and Lisa Page went missing, and why the custodian of those records was arrested for obstruction of justice? for the attempt to destroy them.
The pushback within the agency became so great that James Comey had to reopen to use it as a cover to stop a full-blown whistleblowing rebellion within the FBI. Now remember Donald Trump did not know all of these operative facts, and that is the reason that Rosenstein recommended firing of James Comey, was to hide the deep state operation of the “secret society”of which Andy McCabe was basically the CEO and Rosenstein was protecting the operations agenda, when he told Jeff Sessions, ‘he should recuse himself from everything Russian’ which is why Rosenstein appointed deep state operative, long time friend of Jaomes Comey, Robert Mueller, and why James Comey demanded a special prosecutor which Rosenstein was the one who appointed Robert Mueller, remember Mueller is an alleged Republican of course so his deep state operative John McCain. Comey seeks a job which should’ve been Jeff Sessions to do. Rosenstein and FBI director Ray never expected the information in the memo, proved Rosenstein’s heavy involvement with attacking and the coup d’état against, Donald Trump both before and after the election. Now here’s the important question; Rosenstein is at the center of this conspiracy he is running the Department of Justice or as I call them that Department of “just us”, is a conspirator against president Donald Trump. Now would you allow someone to work for you that at actually documented they use perjury and plotted against you illegally?
Rosenstein is running the Justice Department, how effective with a conspirator running your DOJ do you seriously think Jeff Sessions is going to be unless he fires Rosenstein and if he doesn’t work you think you have over Jeff Sessions to gain his cooperation in acquiescence to the deep state plodding along? there’s a lot more to this but that’s sufficient for now.
Then consider the fact that James Comey is actually on the Board of Directors of the Bank of London; Robert Mueller and James Comey were involved in Waco too for Janet Reno. then factor in the fact that the fake perjured dossier against Donald Trump, was also supplied by John McCain with Lindsey Graham’s blessing. Allow me to pose another question? How did John McCain get his hands on the dossier, if not from James Comey, Andrew aka Andy McCabe or Rosenstein? John McCain is a deeply operative and part of that secret societies and McCain is the insurance agent for the conspiratorial insurance program! John McCain passes dossier alleging secret Trump-Russia contacts to FBI | US news | The Guardian

So essentially DoD now wants blanket data collection n storage of anyone not affiliated with DoD

Authority for maintenance of the system:
10 U.S.C. 2674, Operation and control of Pentagon Reservation and defense facilities in National Capital Region; 18 U.S.C. 794, Gathering or Delivering Defense Information to Aid Foreign Government; E.O. 12333, United States Intelligence Activities; E.O. 12968, Access to Classified Information; DoD Directive (DoDD) 5105.68, Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA);

DoDD 5200.27, Acquisition of Information Concerning Persons and Organizations not Affiliated with the Department of Defense;

DoDD 5240.01, DoD Intelligence Activities, as amended; DoDD 5240.02, Counterintelligence; DoDD 5240.06, DoD Counterintelligence Awareness and Reporting (CIAR); DoD Instruction (DoDI) O-5240.21, Counterintelligence Inquiries; and Administrative Instruction 30, Force Protection on the Pentagon Reservation.

http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=DOD-2015-OS-0078-0001